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Sonjuku Okinawa Study Tour

「Sonjuku Okinawa Study Tour」November 11 to 13, 2017

  Some members of Shimada Sonjuku and myself went on to study tour of Okinawa for the period of November 11(Saturday) to 13(Monday), 2017.

   Study tour to Okinawa is the compulsory subject of Shimada Sonjuku for the following reasons. Okinawa is the place where we can learn an important aspect of Japan’s history, feel an unique culture different from cultures of Japan’s mainland, the history of miserable war symbolizing the end of World War II in  which Japan was defeated by the United States and also learn the current front guard of Japanese archipelago working with the US military stationed in Okinawa.

   Since main objectives of Shimada Sonjuku are to study history and cultures of major cultural zones of the world including Japan, Okinawa is an indispensable place and subject of our study. It is because Okinawa is the place where we can learn both the contemporary history of Japan of which the experience of war is the most important, and also Okinawa’s unique culture which suggests that Japan is the country of cultural heterogeneity.

   Okinawa is an island which occupies about 2% of the width of Japanese archipelago and inhabited by1.4 million people. On this small island, 70% of entire American military bases on Japan is located. Therefore, the existence of American military bases is the prime issue and feature of Okinawa: an issue in the sense that Okinawa people take it as an unfair burden imposed on them relative to the people of the mainland, and as an outstanding feature in the sense that it symbolizes the strategic importance of this island for the US-Japan security arrangement.

   For these reasons, the Shimada Sonjuku makes it a rule to visit a large base of American airforce located in the area of Kadena-town when the sonjuku makes a study tour to Okinawa. In fact we have visited the airforce base twice in the past. Each time, the airforce base has accepted our visit rather smoothly and promptly. However, this time it was somewhat different. It took considerable time to get their acceptance.

   It took longer time partly because our initial proposal of the date conflicted the holiday of the base, but perhaps also because there were other reasons. An increasing threat of missiles of North Korea has changed the entire geopolitical situation of this part of the world. Finally, the airbase office proposed another date and our visit was made possible. We are very thankful for the decision of the air force representatives and also for the earnest support of Mr. Nakajima, Koichiro, Director General of  Okinawa Defense Bureau, Mr. Morita, Haruo、Mr. Jyomura, Nobuyoshi of the Ministry to get approval of our visit.


   November 11(Saturday)

  The number of the team members has been 15 to 18. The number changed from time to time because of their own plan of the trip. We arrived at Okinawa Naha AP shortly before noon of Saturday. We took a bus to visit a nice traditional Okinawa restaurant, named “Yagiya”. The humble house of the restaurant was located in the midst of farming field. Dishes were delicious.

   Having finished lunch, we went on to visit Peace Memorial Park. This park was built in the mid-1970s for the purpose of reposing the soul of those who lost their lives in Okinawa war of 1945 whether they are civilians or soldiers. The park is located at the edge of Itoman city which is at the South end of the main island of Okinawa. 

   This was the final battle field of Okinawa war which ended on June 23, 1945. This was the most fierce fight between the US and Japanese military on the island of Okinawa. In the park, there located many rows of low memorial walls made of black granite on which names of those who lost their lives are carved. The total number is about 240000, and is increasing from time to time even now as the new names of the dead are identified.

  Beyond the park is the sea of East China sea. It was breezing. Watching from the cliff top, the bottom of which is washed by the waves of the ocean, I imagined many Japanese civilians jumped from the cliff edge to escape from the merciless attacks by the US force. Having spent some time there, we moved on to “Himeyuri no Toh” or the Tower of Young Lilies.

  The Tower of Young Lilies was located nearby. This is the memorial spot to commemorate those young female high school students who lost their lives during Okinawa war, mainly during the fierce battle fought in the Neighborhood of Itoman area in mid-June, 1945. These were the students of Okinawa prefectural No.1 Female High School. Some 300 students, teachers and staff were mobilized to help taking care of wounded soldiers. In the fierce battle, some 200 students lost their lives.

   In the memorial hall of the tower of lily, there displayed pictures of the students, their left over articles, and their notes of experience at the last minute. Watching these items makes us painfully feel the dreadful and desperate situation they were in.

   At the side of a display case, there was an old lady who spoke to the visitors as a story teller of war experience. Having listened to her story sometime, Mr. Yoshiyuki Goto, our member, asked her a question as to when and how she realized that the war was over.

  She replied slowly reminding of the moment when she felt that the war was over, saying, “An American nisei(2nd generation) officer came to us and asked if we were hungry. I noded. He said to us to wait there and said that he would come back to bring us food. Sometime later he came back to us with a basked full of foods of various kinds. Since I was very hungry, I thanked him and waited for the rest of our group came back.

   A moment later, other members of our group came back. A senior student among them asked me what this food was and who gave it. I explained all what happened. Then she got very angry and ordered strongly that I should dispose it. I felt very sorry but disposed the precious food in a drum can nearby.

   Some day later, again that nisei officer came to us and advised that we should move us to a safer place because the place we were was dangerous. We got on a truck he drove. It took some hours to get to the place. He said that this place was much safer. This was all what he could do for us. He told us that since we must have family, relatives and friends, we should go to find them on our own. He was very kind to us. I realized that the war was over.” I suspect that the  place she referred to must have been at or near the refugee or victims camp in Ishikawa-cho area.

   The lady was behaving very well and elegantly. The memory was precise and expression was thoughtful. It was hard to believe that she was age 89. She must have been age 17 when she was mobilized to join the rescue team for Japanese soldiers. Listening to her was a very special experience.

   We then moved on to “Kaigun-go”(Navy Resistance Cave) in the suburb of Naha-city. This was the cave digged using only hand shovel and pickax. The cave was digged amazingly long and functionally under ground. Toward the end of the Okinawa war, a navy troop who lost their ship in the battle escaped to the land and digged the cave in the rocky hill. Soldiers often attacked US military camps in the midnight. 

   When they finally realized that there could be no hope to win nor survive, the commander, a rear admiral, Mr. Minoru Ohta, sent a telegram to the Imperial Navy commanding headquarter. In the telegram, he wrote rather in detail how Okinawa people fought together with Japanese troops in the extreme hardship, and concluded the telegram saying, “Let us wish that a special consideration be given to the Okinawans in the future.”  After sending the telegram, Admiral Ohta and his fellow officers and soldiers all killed themselves.

   Admiral Minoru Ohta is one of a very few Japanese military officers who have been respected by Okinawa people. Walking through the underground caves, and watching the displays of hand shovels and pickax, chairs and tables, pictures of battles which were mostly one sided destructive attacks by US troops, tanks, ships and planes, we were caught in a special feeling. That is, why Japanese soldiers and civilians had to fight this kind of hopeless war sacrificing their lives.

  In the bus on the way from Kaigun-go to Kanutcha Resort hotel where we planned to stay over the night, we talked about this issue. It is known by now that many people including the high rank military generals and officers knew in those times that Japan would surely be defeated by the US which had ten times more productive capacity. The question is why then Japan plunged to wage the hopeless and desperate war against the US.

   We discussed that it must be due to the mal-functioning of  the decision making system of Japanese military, government and even the society which is influenced one-sidedly by the biased media. The Mal-functioning of Japan’s decision making was not only the case os the WWII time, but also often observed in many important organizations of Japanese society, government or even businesses alike. Then our discussion proceeded to the question of how Japan would react when North Korea finally succeed to develop and deploy nuclear headed ICBM. It is certainly a nightmare. But we unfortunately know that we are not prepared to think soundly how we should recognize and react or proact to such a serious situation.

   We arrived at Kanutcha Resort hotel in late evening. Mr.Eiichiro Nakamura, chief chef and general manager of the hotel had prepared a gorgeous dinner arrangement in the nice garden overlooking the sea. Incidentally, over a couple of hundred meters ahead of the sea, there locates Amrican Marine Corps Camp “Schwab.” On the coast of the camp Schwab, Japanese government plans to build a Marine Corps helicopter base. The project has been on the deadlock because of the strong opposition of the governor of Okinawa, Mr. Onaga.

   The dinner was delicious, the service was splendid, and the atmosphere was almost a royal dinner, thanks to dedication of Mr. Eiichiro Nakamura. We talked, enjoyed wines and ryukyu Awamori, local liquor representing Okinawa, and eventually sang songs. In the mid-night, we went back to our hotel rooms.

November 12(Sunday)

  We left Kanutcha Hotel at 9 am. We headed at a hill park at the side of  Futemma Marine Corp Base. When we arrived there, it started  to rain slightly. This is unusual because wherever I go, I usually encounter no rain. Something must be wrong! We walked up to the top of the hill from where we can have an overview of the runway of Futenma helicopter base. 

   The runway is surround densely by houses of Ginowan-city people. In fact, these houses have been built during the years of Okinawa recovery and development after the base was constructed in this area. Whatever the reason, the fact that the runway is closely surrounded by people’s houses makes the danger of any accidents serious. This is the reason why Okinawa people and Okinawa political leaders have been demanding strongly to move the base somewhere else.

   We were able to see the runway fairly well from far away. There were a couple of dozens of helicopters. There were no Osplays, which has been the target of citizen’s recent anti-base campaigns. 

  In 1996, in the wake of the citizens’ uprising accusing the rape of 12year Okinawa girl by Marine Corp soldiers. the then Prime Minister Rytaro Hashimoto flew to see President Bill Clinton at Pebble Beach in California to meet and negotiate directly with the president to relocate this base which is more dangerous than other bases because of the above reasons. President Clinton amazingly compromised to relocate the base. 

 Then the ball was on Japan’s court. The Japanese government had to find the alternative plane for the base. They located the new place at the side of Camp Schwab, which is in the area of Henoko village at the suburb of Nago-city. However, it took a long time to get agreement of Okinawa prefecture because of strong resistance of citizens and politicians of anti-base organizations.This anti-base campaign was aggravated by an unbelievably irresponsible message ofMr.Hatoyam in 2009, the then prime Minister of Japan.

  Mr.Hatoyama said that he would promise to move the base out of Japan or at least out of Okinawa. Given the official message of the prime minister, the anti-base groups have been extremely empowered. This irresponsible message left a serious scar afterward in spite of the earnestly positive attitude of Abe government to relocate the baee from Futemma to Henoko area.

  From the top of the hill overlookng the base we spent sometime watching the runway of the base, which is the focus of the most difficult problem which the Japanese government faces in relation with the US.

  We then headed to Ryukyu-village theme park. This park is managed by Uechi family. I have had a luck of having a close friendship relation with the family, particularly, Mr. Toshio Uechi, ex-president of the Uechi group company. The Uechi group manages several businesses in addition to this theme park at various locations of Okinawa mainland and also Ishigaki-island. Mr.Toshio Uschi is the brother of Mr.Choei Uechi, the head of the Uechi group. The Uechi brothers have been awarded “Tourism Carisuma Award” from prime minister Junichiro Koizumi. They were recommended by the award committee which I headed.

  The unique feature of Uechi group is, in addition to tourist attractiveness of their business, close cooperation of entire Uechi families which is rather unusual for many small business families of Japan and elsewhere. Thanks largely to this family culture, they and their employees work hard in good cooperation, which apparently contributes a lot to make their business uniquely successful in Okinawa.

  Mr. Uechi and his staff warmly welcomed sonjuku members from the moment of stepping out of the bus. They showed them around the park for about an hour. The park is constructed by old houses collected from various parts of Okinawa islands, and a whole set of amusing shows and activities are given to the visitors. Sonjuku members enjoyed traditional Okinawa cultures in the park. 

  They arranged a garden lunch, where they showed us special performances of traditional dances and songs. Stimulated and encouraged by such performances of Okinawa professional entertainers, Sonjuku members got excited and started sing songs by themselves.Their performance was amazingly good. Mr. Uechi and Okinawa staff were so much impressed by such performance of Sonjuku members’, which made this visit very hot and excited.

  We then returned back to Kanutcha resort hotel, where I gave a lecture for about an hour and  a half on such topics as the history of Okinawa, sad experiences of Okinawa war, post-war experiences of Okinawa people, Japan-US relations in the post war period particularly during the cold war,  Japan-US security arrangement, problems of US military bases in Okinawa, etc.

  I spent some time to talk about somewhat in detail about my own involvement in Okinawa as chairperson of Okinawa problem committee. Its full name is long, namely, “the committee serving to Cabinet minister, Mr. Kajiyama, to examine to give proposals on the question of the development of Okinawa”. Since the name is too long, this is usually called by a short name, ”Shimada Committee. ” And in Okinawa even shorter as “Shima Committee, sounding in Okinawa as the Island Committee.

  This committee was organized by the government in the wake of a sad criminal incident that three Marine Corp soldiers raped a 12 year old Okinawa girl in Kin-town in fall of 1996. This case was not made open by her family and close friends for a while considering of the shock of the girl. But soon afterwards, the case was known publicly, and made Okinawa peple angry against the US military and also against Japanese government. Hundreds of thousands of Okinawa people demonstrated around the US bases and surround the bases by their  human chains. They also went to Tokyo to protest. The then prime minister Mr. Murayama、Tomiichi of Socialist party and high officials of his government did not know what to do, and Mr. Murayama resigned from his position, which was succeeded by Mr. Hashimoto, Ryutaro, who took this case seriously. On the US side, president Clinton, Mr.William J.Perry, Defense secretary, and Ambassador James Forley took this incident very seriously.

  Prime minister Hashimoto, Ryutaro thought it extremely important to take care the anger of Okinawa people and give them some sensible relief. For this purpose,  he did three things immediately. First, he flew to the US to meet President Clington at Palm Beach to negotiated directly with him to move the Futemma Marine Corp base which is surrounded by citizens’ houses to somewhere else where population density is much lower so that the damage of an accident would be much smaller. He knew that Okinawa people are most nervous about the danger of Futemma base accident. Second, he set up a committee to examine and discuss possibilities of amending the agreement of the status of US military stationed in Japan. And third, establish the ministerial committee to provide special aid to promote economic development of Okinawa.

  In addition, Mr.Kajiyama, Seiroku, the cabinet minister of Mr.Hashimoto’s administration, proposed to organize a committee consisting of experts and local representatives which is to propose good plans for Okinawa people to have hopes for the future to develop their communities getting rid of the past practice of one-sidedly dependent on the subsidies of the mainland government. 

   Mr.Kajiyama emphasized that this committee examines and decides the plans from the viewpoint of Okinawa people and not from the bureaucratic eyes of the mainland government. This idea was suggested to Mr. Kajiyama by Mr. Okamoto, Yukio, an advisor to Mr. Kajiyama and also my good friend. Because of earnest request of Mr. Okamoto, I finally accepted to take a job of chairperson of this committee, which later became known by the name of “Shimada committee”.

  In order to fulfill the requirement of Mr. Kajiyama to make the committee determine things from the viewpoint of Okinawa people, Mr. Okamoto, committee members and myself went around the Okinawa island to visit some 50 sites where US bases or military facilities are located to examine the situation and talk to people and listen to their views and demands as carefully as possible. Having visited Okinawa a couple of dozen times within two months, I finally became reminding various site scenes of Okinawa even while I am sleeping. 

 After having learned the situation and wishes of people, we carefully planned projects which would encourage Okinawa people and give them hopes for the future. Since the projects proposed by this committee would be given the budget only once and never repeated, the projects must be successful. To make the projects successful for people, I went around the island to visit communities and persuaded young local community leaders with various professions to organize a team to do PDCA for each project. I named it, “Team Future.” Eventually for each of some 40 projects, a Team Future was organized. 

  The largest of these projects was the redevelopment project of Kadena-town. This is the town which was first attacked most severely by the US troop which landed on April 1, 1945 Okinawa main island, namely, Kadena shore and was later developed as the strategic airport for B29 bombers to bomb mainland cities. 

   When inhabitants returned to their hometown after the war, 83% of their land was taken away by the US occupancy troop as their military base. The inhabitants who lived there before the war had to live densely in the narrow area of 17% of the old town area left for them to live.

   Because of this situation, the town after the war has been extremely narrow and congested. The living conditions in the town were poor and business opportunities in the town were very scarce. Having listened people’s voices of all the areas where US bases and military facilities were located, we judged that the conditions of Kadena-town were the worst and needed to be taken care of most urgently. We proposed a major plan of reconstructing the central part of the town thoroughly.

   Mr. MIyagi, Tokuichi, the town mayor, and his staff and town people worked very hard to reconstruct the town by their own planning and work. The budget was large but they accomplished the project marvelously mostly by their own initiative of “Team Future”.

  At the end of their work, Mr. MIyagi, Tokuichi and his staff proposed to display the copper relief of portrait of Mr.Kajiyama, Mr. Okamoto, and myself at the entrance hall of the newly built large town hall to thank our effort to contribute to the town. It was an unexpected honor. 
   We plan to visit Kadena town tommorow and surely visit the town hall in which Okinawa bureau of Defense ministry has its headquarter. On the way, Sonjuku members must pass by the copper relief of my portrait. I finished my talk on Okinawa finally referring to this copper relief episode in order to not let them surprise when they see it.
   After my lecture on Okinawa’s history and its role on contemporary defense, we had a wonderful Chinese dinner at Kanutcha hotel restaurant.

November 13(Monday)

 Early in the morning at 8:45am, we left Kanucha resort hotel heading at Kadena US Airforce Base. The driver of the bus predicted that it would take an hour and probably 15 minites. Amazingly, the bus arrived at the gate of the base almost exactly at 10:00 am, the timing that the airbase office advised us to arrive.

  At the gate, one of the sonjuku members, Ms. Mayuka Matsui joined us. She has had a different trip plan in Okinawa until today. Ms. Higa, Sayaka、who works for the base kindly guided our bus to arrive at the entrance of the office building of the base. Mr. Nakajima, Koichiro, Director General of Okinawa Defense Bureau was waiting for us at the entrance. It is unusual that such a high official of Defense ministry escort us. We were very thankful for hie earnest and kind support to make our visit of the base possible this time.

   Several US airforce officers have welcomed us. I learned later that they were Colonel、Oldham,Paul M, commander of 18th Mission Support Group, Mr.Townsend、Paul P. Lt.Colonel, commander of 18th operation support squadron, and Mr. Potter, Donovan K. Public Affairs, 388th Fighter Wing.

  They guided us to enter a conference room. We sat around the big table in the center of the room. Mr. Oldham gave an opening remark to welcome us representing the 18th Wing of US airforce. They received us very friendly. Then, a lady officer gave an introductory briefing on the history and basic missions of the 18th Wing troop in Okinawa using projected pictures of various aspects of the base. This briefing was followed by the explanation by Mr.Townsend on various functions of the troop stationed in Kadena base.

   Of their speeches and presentations. there were several points which are particularly interesting for me. The 18th Wing troop has a long history even before the WWII. The members of this troop seem all proud of the achievements and glorious tradition of this Wing. Having been stationed in Okinawa, they played integral roles in some of the major wars like Korean War in the early 1950s and the Gulf war and subsequent wars in the middle East around the end of 1990s and the beginning of 2000s.

   The 18th Wing troop has many functions in addition to fighting and reconnaissance in the air, but also many supportive actions such as delivery of needed items, rescue and medical cares etc. Impressive was the fact that they spend much effort at various occasions to associate with local people to enhance mutual understanding and respect with each other.

  Having spent about an hour by listening to briefing and enjoying Q and A session, the officials suggested us to move on to a brief tour of the base. We stepped on a bus the base prepared for us. We soon arrived at a space in front of hangers for jet fighters. Several F-15 jets were staying in the hanger designed to accomodate one hanger for each jet plane. Stepping out of the bus and we went much closer to the jet. 

   Mr. Townsend gave us many interesting and eye opening explanations. F-15 is one of the most cherished models of jet fighters by airforce pilots. The basic model of F-15 was created almost 40 years ago. Since then, F-15 jets, with some occasional improvements,  have been heavily used by the airforce as the most usable plane. Mr.Townsend has a record offlying on F-15 for some 1800 hours which took 20 years. He occasionally teaches and trains young pilots. In fact, training is, in his view, perhaps the most important to build war capacity. Human resource management is critical to keep and enhance fighting capability of the airforce. 

  We moved on further along the row of hangers. We passed by the jets which look much different from F-15. They were F-35. F-35 is the latest model of jet fighters which has the non-detectable feature. Unlike a crane looking good shape of F-15, F-35 has a rather fat and low body. Watching F-35, the senior looking gentleman who has been on the bus with us gave us useful knowldege about the get. He is Mr.Potter, a PR officer of F-35 having travelled together with F-35 from the main base of F-35 in the US mainland. 

   The unique shape of F-35 is perhaps because F-35 is equipped with many complex devices of information handiing. In fact, F-35 has the most advanced capability of surveilance, detection, and communication. Its main function is not fighting but rather giving useful and necessary information to other colleague jet fighters to make their fight more advantageous and efficient by providing useful information on time. His explanation made me imagine that the air fight nowadays is more like a TV game rather than a real fight as represented by “dog fight” in the past.

  About a dozen of F-35s are now on duty at Kadena airbase. They have flown from the main base in the US mainland and plan to stay at Kadena for some period with relevant mission. This must be a special case. Although none spoke about the relation to North Korea issue, we imagined that this was probably the case. It was the time that US military has been carrying out the major drill operation working with South Korean military vouched by three major aircraft carriers deployed in  the area of Japan Sea.

  Having watched F-15s and F-35s in the hangers and driven around some area of the base, the promised  time of leaving the base came closer. When we stopped by the office before leaving the base to thank for the cordial reception and guidance they provided to us, Mr.Oldham came out to see us off and handed me his medal. I found later that this was a special medal given to him from the 18th Wing. I was deeply felt by his goodwill. We left the base almost punctually at noon as planned.

  We then moved to a nice and cozy restaurant at a beach where they serve thinly sliced pork meat. We eat it dipping briefly in hot water tother with vegetables. This local dish is tasty and also healthy. Since we had time, we strolled along the beach and took some rest on benches, then, we went to the town hall of Kadena-town which is quite near from the restaurant. In the town hall, Okinawa bureau of Defense Ministry is located.

  Since we arrived at the hall somewhat earlier than our promised time of arrival,  I brought the members to the entrance hall of the town hall. On the wall of the entrance hall, copper relieves of portraits of Mr. Seiroku, Kajiyama, Mr. Okamoto, Yukio and myself were hung. Sonjuku members were astonished as well as apparently impressed by looking at directly my copper relief portrait which I referred to last evening in my lecture.

  We then went up to the office floor of Okinawa Defense Bureau. Mr. Nakajima, Koichiro, Director General of the Bureau, cordially welcomed us to the meeting room. He prepared a set of information sheets for each of us. He explained briefly history and the locations of US military basis in Okinawa.

   Okinawa bureau seems to perform a complex of variety of jobs. In addition to the liaison function with main office of Ministry of Defense and other relevant government offices, it takes care of on the spot questions of Self Defense Force, US military stationed in Okinawa, and perhaps most importantly, prefectural government and people of Okinawa.

  When we referred to F-35s we saw this morning in Kadena Airbase, Mr.Nakajima told us about the complaints and demands given to the Okinawa Defense Bureau. They complained strongly about abnormal noise given most likely by F-35. Mr.Nakajima told us many different cases and instances of such complaints given to the bureau. The job of the bureau is to transmit such complaints or demands carefully to the US military office and return answers or responses, if any, of US military back to them. We imagine that this kind of job sometimes becomes pressing and nerve breaking.

   When talking about the return of the land of the military base to the owners, which takes place time to time, he told about some curious practice. Incidentally, the following kind of problem is rather unique to Okinawa. This is because in Okinawa, US military bases have talen much of their land from private land owners, while in mainland Japan military bases use mostly nationally owned land. 

   The story is that, when the owner loses the opportunity to get rent payment from the Japanese government because of the return of his land from US military which he had been renting to the government for US military use, the Japanese government usually keeps paying some amount of money almost equivalent to the amount of rent which he was getting earlier for quite sometime until he will find someway to gain income from the returned land. It sometimes last several years. The government does it in order to mitigate the impact of drastic change for the landlord. We were particularly impressed by an extremely good care given to Okinawa people by the government.

  We then walked to town office of Kadena-town. We were cordiary welcomed by Mr. Tohyama, Hiroshi Mayor of the town, and a few town executives. They talked about how helpful the Shimada committee was to reconstruct the town to make it look as it does now. I am glad that they appreciated the job of our committee.

  Since time was limited, we did not have enough time to talk about many topics. Within the limited time, they talked mostly the problem of noise given from F-35 which arrived recently at Kadena airbase.  They said that they have kept measuring the noise for some time in order bring the data to Okinawa Defense Bureau asking them to transmit their complaint to the relevant office of US military. We realized that the noise of F-35 has been the major issue in this area of Okinawa.

   Thanking their hospitality, we left the town office, and headed for Naha AP to return to Tokyo in the evening.
 
 
 
 

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